Commit 9e2f00c9 authored by Lukas Tobler's avatar Lukas Tobler
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Update installguide

parent 008c667c
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<p>For each of these distributions we give you starting points for a successful installation. If you want to install other distributions feel free to do so; and we will do our best to help you. If you are an enthusiast and want to try to install something more advanced (like <a href="https://www.archlinux.org/">Arch Linux</a>) come join us :).</p>
<h2 data-number="2.2" id="download-iso"><span class="header-section-number">2.2</span> Download ISO</h2>
<p>You need to download an image containing the operating system installer. Visit the webpage of your favourite distribution and download it.</p>
<p>If you have to choose from multiple versions, here some guidance of commonly used terms: - <code>amd64</code>, <code>i386</code>, … refers to the architecture of your device. If you have a laptop / PC, it is very likely that you need <code>amd64</code> (else you’d probably know it). - <code>LTS</code> stands for long term support; meaning this specific version of the distribution will receive security updates for much longer than other versions.</p>
<p>If you have to choose from multiple versions, here some guidance of commonly used terms:</p>
<ul>
<li><code>amd64</code>, <code>i386</code>, … refers to the architecture of your device. If you have a laptop / PC, it is very likely that you need <code>amd64</code> (else you’d probably know it).</li>
<li><code>LTS</code> stands for long term support; meaning this specific version of the distribution will receive security updates for much longer than other versions.</li>
</ul>
<h2 data-number="2.3" id="create-install-usb-stick"><span class="header-section-number">2.3</span> Create install USB Stick</h2>
<p>Get a USB stick of at least 8 Gb (make sure you do not need the data on it anymore!). Flash (=“Put”) the .iso file you have just downloaded on the USB stick.</p>
<p>On windows, you can use https://rufus.ie/. On macOS, you can use https://www.balena.io/etcher/.</p>
<p>On windows, you can use <a href="https://rufus.ie/">rufus</a>. On macOS, you can use <a href="https://www.balena.io/etcher/">etcher</a>.</p>
<h1 data-number="3" id="prepare-windows-mac"><span class="header-section-number">3</span> Prepare Windows / Mac</h1>
<p>If you want to keep your existing operating system (Windows or macOS) you need to prepare it. This will allow you to “double-boot”, hence choose at startup which operating system to run.</p>
<p>If you do not want to keep your existing operating system, you can skip this section.</p>
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<p>Boot with <code>nomodeset</code> kernel parameter, then either install proprietary NVIDIA drivers or disable the NVIDIA graphics entirely.</p>
<h2 data-number="6.6" id="i-want-to-disable-the-nouveau-driver"><span class="header-section-number">6.6</span> I want to disable the Nouveau driver</h2>
<p><code>echo 'blacklist nouveau' | tee /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf</code></p>
<h2 data-number="6.7" id="system-1"><span class="header-section-number">6.7</span> System</h2>
<h3 data-number="6.7.1" id="chroot-into-an-installed-system"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.1</span> chroot into an installed system</h3>
<h2 data-number="6.7" id="acer"><span class="header-section-number">6.7</span> Acer</h2>
<p>Some types of newer Acer notebooks need special settings for Secure Boot in order to boot an installed GNU/Linux system at all. If you installed eg. Ubuntu but it directly boots Windows without giving you a GRUB selection screen, try the following guide: https://askubuntu.com/questions/771455/dual-boot-ubuntu-with-windows-on-acer-aspire/771749#771749</p>
<h2 data-number="6.8" id="system-1"><span class="header-section-number">6.8</span> System</h2>
<h3 data-number="6.8.1" id="chroot-into-an-installed-system"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.1</span> chroot into an installed system</h3>
<p>To chroot into an installed system from a live iso, do the following:</p>
<ul>
<li><code>sudo su</code></li>
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<li><code>mount -o bind /dev /mnt/dev/</code></li>
<li><code>chroot /mnt /bin/bash</code></li>
</ul>
<h3 data-number="6.7.2" id="cleaning-up-boot-entries"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.2</span> Cleaning up boot entries</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.2" id="cleaning-up-boot-entries"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.2</span> Cleaning up boot entries</h3>
<ul>
<li><code>efibootmgr</code> prints all boot entries.</li>
<li><code>efibootmgr -o XXXX,YYYY,ZZZZ</code> sets the boot order.</li>
<li><code>efibootmgr -b &lt;number&gt; -B</code> deletes an EFI boot entry.</li>
</ul>
<h3 data-number="6.7.3" id="drives-are-not-found-in-the-installer"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.3</span> Drives are not found in the installer</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.3" id="drives-are-not-found-in-the-installer"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.3</span> Drives are not found in the installer</h3>
<p>Especially newer laptops (2018+) have options to switch between RAID and AHCI boot mode.</p>
<p>If the laptop is running in RAID mode and Linux does not recognize its drives, it will have to be switched to AHCI. Unfortunately, this also means Windows needs to be reconfigured, otherwise it won’t boot anymore.</p>
<ol type="1">
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<li>Type this command and press ENTER: <code>bcdedit /deletevalue {current} safeboot</code> (ALT: bcdedit /deletevalue safeboot)</li>
<li>Reboot once more and Windows will automatically start with AHCI drivers enabled.</li>
</ol>
<h3 data-number="6.7.4" id="bit-efi-is-used"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.4</span> 32-bit EFI is used</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.4" id="bit-efi-is-used"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.4</span> 32-bit EFI is used</h3>
<ul>
<li>No provided install image will boot.</li>
<li>Windows is installed in 32-bit mode.</li>
<li>Some older Macbooks have this configuration.</li>
<li>To install 64-bit Linux (we never encountered an actual 32-bit CPU with this problem!), manually replace the bootloader with a grub standalone. <a href="https://wiki.archlinux.org/index.php/Unified_Extensible_Firmware_Interface#Booting_64-bit_kernel_on_32-bit_UEFI">See the Arch Wiki.</a></li>
</ul>
<h3 data-number="6.7.5" id="i-need-to-turn-off-bitlocker"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.5</span> I need to turn off Bitlocker</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.5" id="i-need-to-turn-off-bitlocker"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.5</span> I need to turn off Bitlocker</h3>
<p><strong>Do not change any BIOS/UEFI settings before disabling BitLocker!</strong> You will have to provide the decryption key otherwise, which the user typically has no access to.</p>
<ul>
<li>Launch a command prompt with administrator rights and use <code>manage-bde -off C:</code>, where <code>C:</code> is the drive you want to decrypt.</li>
<li>Use the command <code>manage-bde -status</code> to query the decryption status.</li>
<li>You will need to wait until decryption is complete, which can take a long time.</li>
</ul>
<h3 data-number="6.7.6" id="unlock-bitlocker-encrypted-devices"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.6</span> Unlock BitLocker Encrypted Devices</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.6" id="unlock-bitlocker-encrypted-devices"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.6</span> Unlock BitLocker Encrypted Devices</h3>
<p>If you change any UEFI settings on a BitLocker encrypted device (typically Surface devices), you will be prompted for the BitLocker key on next boot.</p>
<p>Since Surface devices come encrypted out of the box, the user does typically not have that key and Windows will refuse to boot. If this happens, resetting the UEFI settings to factory settings should fix the issue.</p>
<p>Alternatively, you can just enter the correct Bitlocker key. This works only if the user has a Microsoft account linked to the device. You can get the BitLocker key as follows:</p>
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<li>Search for a link saying “To get your recovery key, go to BitLocker Recovery Keys” or similar. Go there.</li>
<li>Ask the user to sign in using their Microsoft account. The website will then display their recovery key, which can be used to unlock the device.</li>
</ul>
<h3 data-number="6.7.7" id="system-will-not-boot-under-any-circumstance"><span class="header-section-number">6.7.7</span> System will not boot under any circumstance</h3>
<h3 data-number="6.8.7" id="system-will-not-boot-under-any-circumstance"><span class="header-section-number">6.8.7</span> System will not boot under any circumstance</h3>
<p>Some very bad firmwares just refuse to boot GRUB, however you configure it. This “bootloader hack” can be applied in these cases.</p>
<ul>
<li>Try to boot the actual distro that has been installed by “using a device” to boot. Do so by holding shift while clicking on “reboot” in Windows.</li>
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