Commit fdf215e0 authored by Alexander Schoch's avatar Alexander Schoch
Browse files

finish first version of new install guide

parent b2fdece6
\documentclass[../master/install_guide_updated.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
\section{Introduction}
A few years ago, installing Linux was quite the journey: One had to know how to handle what laptop brands, look out for NVIDIA graphic cards, avoid MacBooks and Microsoft Surface in general, do some hacky stuff in order for IR camera or fingerprint sensor to work, etc. A proof of this is our old 22 page long install guide, which still didn't cover close to what could be known about installing linux. Nowadays, however, this process is much more simple, and basically consists of three steps:
\begin{enumerate}
\item Partition your hard drive
\item Start the Install Stick
\item Have a beer while the installer does the rest for you
\end{enumerate}
Sometimes, however, there's still stuff which can go wrong (even though it's rare), and that's what we're here for: The helpers.
\subsection{Install Events}
At the TheAlternative Install Event, you'll choose a Linux Distribution you want to install (see below). After receiving your USB stick, you're ready to go. \par\smallskip
If you do run into any problems, or are unsure what to do, just raise your hand and there will be a helper to assist you in no time.
\subsection{Distributions}
\textit{Distributions} are different executions of the GNU/Linux operating system. Everything under the hood still works the same (in general), but they tweak the software here and there to meet a specific need. The distributions available at our install events are all suited for Linux beginners, and have an additional focus described below. \par\smallskip
If you're unsure about what to install, just start both distributions (without installing them) and play around to see what you like more. You can just exchange your USB stick where you got yours in the first place.
\subsubsection{Ubuntu}
Ubuntu is the most well-known GNU/Linux distribution and is a very common choice among beginners. It's designed to be super user-friendly with a nice (but unique) user interface. Ubuntu (at our install events) comes in two versions:
\begin{itemize}
\item 20.04 LTS: This LTS (long-term support) version is what you should pick if you're unsure. The software on this version is very well tested, and thus has the best chance to run without any problems. However, some applications (and, importantly: the kernel) are a bit dated: It is possible that new laptops (say, newer than 1 year) will probably have some issues with some hardware.
\item 21.10: This non-LTS version released a few days ago, and has in general an updated user interface and newer software versions. It has been tested less, but works better for new hardware.
\end{itemize}
\begin{figure}[ht]
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_2004_desktop.png}
\caption{Ubuntu 20.04 LTS}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_2110_desktop.png}
\caption{Ubuntu 21.10}
\end{subfigure}
\caption{Screenshots of the Ubuntu Desktop}
\end{figure}
\subsubsection{Fedora}
Fedora is a distribution with focus on both new software versions and free
and open source software. It is, however, easy to add repositories to also
use proprietary software (via flatpak). As the software is very new, this
distribution is especially suited for new hardware. \par\smallskip
If you use a M1 MacBook, we strongly recommend to use fedora, is it has the
best chances to work on this hardware. We tested it, and the only thing
needing fixing was audio\footnote{Even running Linux on M1 was near
impossible about 3 years ago}.
\begin{figure}[ht]
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_desktop.png}
\caption{Fedora 34 Desktop}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_activities.png}
\caption{Fedora 34 Applications View}
\end{subfigure}
\caption{Screenshots of the Fedora Desktop}
\end{figure}
\subsection{Important things to know about Linux}
\begin{enumerate}
\item Linux is \textbf{neither Windows nor Mac}. Don't expect everything to work the way it used to work on your old operating system. Try to figure out the differences and to adapt to your new system.
\item \textbf{Installing Software} is not done by downloading stuff with your browser. You'll find (almost) everything in the software store preinstalled on your distribution.
\item There are a few programs which \textbf{do not work} on Linux. The most important of which are Microsoft Word, Excel, PowerPoint and OneNote, as well as all Adobe products. You'll find suitable replacements at the end of this document.
\item If you run into problems, just look them up online. Really. There's a huge amount of documentation and questions/answers by other users. If you don't find any helpful information, just ask us on \url{https://thealternative.ch}.
\end{enumerate}
\end{document}
\documentclass[../master/install_guide_updated.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
\section{Partitioning}
In order to make some space for our new Linux installation, we have to
partition\footnote{A partition is a \enquote{part} of the hard drive, and
partitioning means to manage those partitions.} our hard disks. This is
possible in Linux directly, but it is safer to let the Operating System which
manages this hard drive space do it.\par\smallskip
The size of your new partition(s) can vary, depending on what you plan to do
on your new Linux system:
\begin{itemize}
\item The Operating System itself will use about \SI{8}{GB}
\item If you want to use your Linux system now and then, but don't plan on
having lots of software and data on your Linux system, about
\SI{20}{GB} is enough.
\item If you plan on making your Linux system your main OS, or use software
with high storage demands (e.g. MatLab, Video Editors, etc.), we
recommend at least \SI{80}{GB}
\end{itemize}
\subsection{Windows}
Start your Windows. After being logged in, press \keys{\OSwin + R} and type
\texttt{diskmgmt.msc} to open Disk Management. In here, you can see all the
partitions which, together, form your windows system. Now, you'll have to
decide which partition(s) to shrink. Typically, this is either \texttt{C:} or
\texttt{D:}, as those are the partitions containing the most (unused)
space. Also, it is probably a good idea to shrink an SSD rather than a HDD,
as this makes your Linux system significantly faster. \par\smallskip
\begin{figure}[ht!]
\begin{minipage}{.66\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/diskmgmt.png}
\end{minipage}
\begin{minipage}{.33\linewidth}
\caption{asdf}
\end{minipage}
\end{figure}
% TODO: check those option names
Now, right click the partition to shrink in the diagram on the bottom of the
window (next to e.g. \enquote{Disk 0}) and select \enquote{shrink volume}.
Enter the size you want your Linux installation to be (in MB, multiply
your GB value by 1000).\par\smallskip
After partitioning, you are ready to continue with section \ref{sec:booting}:
Booting.
\subsection{MacOS}
After starting MacOS, start the application \enquote{Disk Utility}
(\enquote{Festplattendienstprogramm} in german). In the top bar, click the
\enquote{Partition} icon.\par\smallskip
In the newly opened window, click the plus button under the pie chart and
select \enquote{Add Partition}. Now, drag the point on the pie chart around
to get your preferred partition size. Click \enquote{apply} when you are
done.
\begin{figure}[ht!]
\begin{subfigure}[b]{.33\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/mac_diskutility.png}
\caption{Disk Utility}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}[b]{.33\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/mac_partition.png}
\caption{Pie Chart}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}[b]{.33\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/mac_partitioned.png}
\caption{Partitioning}
\end{subfigure}
\caption{Screenshots of the \enquote{Disk Utility} application on MacOS Bug
Sur}
\end{figure}
After partitioning, you are ready to continue with section \ref{sec:booting}:
Booting.
\end{document}
\documentclass[../master/install_guide_updated.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
\section{Booting}\label{sec:booting}
Turn off your PC. Now, plug in the USB stick you received when entering the
room and start the Linux OS installed on it. This \enquote{live system} has
a few properties:
\begin{itemize}
\item It contains the installer software for this distribution
\item Whatever you install, change or delete, it won't have any
concequences on your current operating system or the one you are about to
install
\item As this system is booted from USB, it is much slower than an actually
installed version.
\end{itemize}
\subsection{Windows}
While turning your Computer on, hold down the \enquote{Boot Menu} key (see
tab. \ref{tab:keys}). A menu with hard drives should appear, and you can
select the USB drive there.
\begin{table}[ht!]
\centering
\caption{List of common hardware manufacturers with typical keys to open
the BIOS or the boot menu. Typically, you'll only need the boot menu. The
BIOS, however, can be very useful if stuff isn't working the way it is
supposed to.\protect\footnotemark }
\label{tab:keys}
\begin{tabular}{rll}
\toprule
\textbf{Hardware} & \textbf{BIOS} & \textbf{Boot Menu} \\ \midrule
ASUS & \keys{F2} & \keys{\escwin} or \keys{F8} \\
Acer & \keys{F2} or \keys{\delwin} & \keys{F12} \\
Dell & \keys{F2} or \keys{F12} & \keys{F12} \\
HP & \keys{F10} & \keys{\escwin} \\
Lenovo ThinkPad & \keys{\return} when prompted & \keys{\return} when
prompted \\
Microsoft Surface & Press and hold volume up button & Press and hold
volume up button \\ \bottomrule
\end{tabular}
\end{table}
\footnotetext{more info: \url{https://support.fixmestick.com/hc/en-us/articles/360001753213-List-of-Boot-Menu-Hot-Keys}}
\subsection{MacOS}
While turning your Mac on, hold down the \keys{\Altmac} button. A menu for
selecting hard drives should pop up. From there, select the USB drive.
\end{document}
\documentclass[../master/install_guide_updated.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
\section{Installation}
\subsection{Ubuntu}
After connecting to Wi-Fi (top right), open the installer and click through the menus displayed below. Don't forget to check \enquote{Install third party software} in the \enquote{Updates and other Software} menu to make sure that everything will work out of the box. Also, select e.g. \enquote{Install Ubuntu alongside Windows} (or similar) and let the installer do the dangerous stuff.
\begin{figure}[ht!]
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install1.png}
\caption{Language}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install2.png}
\caption{Keyboard Layout}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install3.png}
\caption{Software}
\end{subfigure}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!ht]
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install4.png}
\caption{Installation Type}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install5.png}
\caption{Time Zone}
\end{subfigure}\hfill
\begin{subfigure}{.32\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/ubuntu_install6.png}
\caption{User Account}
\end{subfigure}
\end{figure}
\subsection{Fedora}
After connecting to Wi-Fi (top right), start the Installer and select your
language. After that, you'll have a menu on which to select your keyboard
layout and Partitioning. Just select the hard disk to install fedora on and
let the installer do the dangerous work.\par\bigskip
If you are on Mac, select the partition you created earlier manually, as
MacOS always creates partition with a filesystem on them.
\begin{figure}[!ht]
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_install1.png}
\caption{Language}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_install2.png}
\caption{Main Menu}
\end{subfigure}
\end{figure}
\begin{figure}[!ht]
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_install3.png}
\caption{Partitioning}
\end{subfigure}
\begin{subfigure}{.5\linewidth}
\includegraphics[width=\linewidth]{../include/images/fedora_install4.png}
\caption{Keyboard Layout}
\end{subfigure}
\end{figure}
\end{document}
\documentclass[../master/install_guide_updated.tex]{subfiles}
\begin{document}
\section{Post-Install}
\subsection{Fedora}
As fedora has a focus on free and open source software (FOSS), it is
necessary to enable a few repositories in order to get access to all software
available on Linux. \par\bigskip
After starting the \enquote{Software} application, it will ask you if you
want to enable \enquote{third party repositories}. Enable them.\par\smallskip
The first repository we are going to activate is \enquote{RPMfusion}. For
this, open firefox and visit \url{https://rpmfusion.org/Configuration} and
click the \enquote{RPM Fusion free for Fedora 34} and \enquote{RPM Fusion
nonfree for Fedora 34}. The software center should pop up and you'll be able
to click \enquote{Install}. With RPMfusion, you'll now have access to
all multimedia codecs and more software.\par\smallskip
The second repository we enable is \enquote{flathub}. It contains a lot of
closed-source software, such as Discord, Steam, Microsoft Teams, etc. To
enable it, visit \url{https://flatpak.org/setup/Fedora/} and click on the
blue button. Again, the software store will open up and present you an
install button.
\subsection{Software}
After booting into the newly installed Linux OS, it is generally a good idea
to update all software and check if everything still works. For that, open
the application \enquote{Software} on fedora or \enquote{Applications} on
Ubuntu. On fedora, it is also useful to enable a few software repositories,
as explained in the section before.\par\bigskip
Also, you'll find a compiled list of software suggestions for Linux here:
\url{https://thealternative.ch/guides/install.php#software}
\subsection{The End}
Now that everything is set up and running, you are\ldots done. Congrats, you
just finished the most difficult step in becoming a Linux Guru, and we with
you great fun on your journey on becoming one!\par\bigskip
If you want to learn more about Linux and how to get efficient with it, visit
our next LinuxDays courses (information on \url{https://thealternative.ch}).
Also, don't forget to leave some feedback on
\url{https://feedback.thealternative.ch}, such that we can improve our
courses in the future.
\end{document}
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