Commit e3d3de86 authored by Florian Moser's avatar Florian Moser
Browse files

Add course

parent 852e1ebb
.trafficlight{
background: #222;
background-image: linear-gradient(transparent 2%, #111 2%, transparent 3%, #111 30%);
width: 170px;
height: 400px;
border-radius: 20px;
position: relative;
border: solid 5px #333;
/* make it smaller */
-webkit-transform: scale(0.3);
margin-top: -100px;
margin: -140px -60px;
/* position relative */
position: absolute;
right: 35px;
bottom: 130px;
}
.trafficlight:before{
background: #222;
background-image: radial-gradient(#444, #000);
content: "";
width: 170px;
height: 150px;
margin: 0 auto;
position: absolute;
top: -20px;
margin-left: 0px;
border-radius: 50%;
z-index: -1;
}
.trafficlight:after{
background: #222;
background-image: linear-gradient(-0deg, #777 10%, #ccc 30%, #000);
content: "";
width: 50px;
height: 500px;
margin-left: 60px;
position: absolute;
top: 150px;
z-index: -1;
}
.protector{
background: transparent;
width: 180px;
height: 0;
position: absolute;
top: 20px;
left: -35px;
border-right: solid 30px transparent;
border-left: solid 30px transparent;
border-top: solid 90px #111;
border-radius: 10px;
z-index: -1;
}
.protector:nth-child(2){
top: 140px;
}
.protector:nth-child(3){
top: 260px;
}
.red {
background-image: radial-gradient(brown, transparent);
background-size: 5px 5px;
width: 100px;
height: 100px;
border-radius: 50%;
position: absolute;
top: 20px;
left: 35px;
animation: 13s red infinite;
border: dotted 2px red;
box-shadow:
0 0 20px #111 inset,
0 0 10px red;
}
.red.active{
background: red;
}
.yellow {
background-image: radial-gradient(orange, transparent);
background-size: 5px 5px;
width: 100px;
height: 100px;
border-radius: 50%;
border: dotted 2px yellow;
position: absolute;
top: 145px;
left: 35px;
animation: 13s yellow infinite;
box-shadow:
0 0 20px #111 inset,
0 0 10px yellow;
}
.yellow.active{
background: yellow;
}
.green {
background: green;
background-image: radial-gradient(lime, transparent);
background-size: 5px 5px;
width: 100px;
height: 100px;
border-radius: 50%;
border: dotted 2px lime;
position: absolute;
top: 270px;
left: 35px;
box-shadow:
0 0 20px #111 inset,
0 0 10px lime;
animation: 13s green infinite;
}
.green.active{
background: lime;
}
.inline-traffic-light-light {
position: relative;
padding-left: 50px;
height: 40px;
}
.inline-traffic-light-light .green,
.inline-traffic-light-light .yellow,
.inline-traffic-light-light .red {
scale: 0.3;
top: 0;
left: 0;
margin-left: -30px;
position: absolute;
margin-top: -36px;
}
.spacer {
height: 1em
}
.spacer-2 {
height: 2em
}
.spacer-4 {
height: 4em
}
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......@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8"/>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/remark.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" media="print" href="css/remark.print.css">
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/styles.css">
</head>
<body>
<textarea id="source">
......@@ -17,12 +18,9 @@ class: center, middle
---
# why this talk
# intellectual property
motivation:
- intellectual property is different to real property
- knowledge should be distributed as much as possible
- everyone should know what is legal, and think about what is ethical
<img src="images/chair.jpg" width="100%">
---
......@@ -30,8 +28,36 @@ motivation:
you:
- know the central legal provisions / concepts that apply
- can argue about legal standing of what you are accessing
- know where to find what you need
- can argue about legal and ethical standing of what you are accessing
<div class="spacer-4"></div>
we will use a traffic light!
<div class="inline-traffic-light-light">
<div class="red active"></div>
clearly unethical and illegal
</div>
<div class="inline-traffic-light-light">
<div class="yellow active"></div>
arguably illegal
</div>
<div class="inline-traffic-light-light">
<div class="green active"></div>
legal
</div>
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red"></div>
<div class="yellow"></div>
<div class="green"></div>
</div>
---
......@@ -51,7 +77,7 @@ society needs balance:
- individual medical decisions vs medical health of society
- free movement vs incarceration of dangerous individuals
today:
this talk:
- tragedy of the commons vs monopoly
- protection of creators vs distribution of knowledge
- market incentives vs market efficiency
......@@ -60,162 +86,319 @@ today:
# intellectual property
copyright & neighbouring rights:
- works like books, photos, videos, drawings
- performances of works
- recordings of said performances of said works
<blockquote>
Target: Protect authors's relationship with their works.
</blockquote>
cases:
- urheberrecht (works like books, photos, videos, drawings)
- patents (ideas like inventions, processes,
industrial property (distinctive signs):
- trademarks (names, colors, logos)
- geographical designations
---
industrial property (inventions):
- patents (ideas like inventions, processes, ...)
- industrial designs (designs like speakers, ...)
- trade secrets
# Urheberrecht
<blockquote>
Target: Incentivize quality and innovation.
</blockquote>
owner of urheberrecht has sole right to allow/deny others access
---
motivation: tragedy of the commons breaks market
because anyone case use, and one's use does not impact other's use
# urheberrecht
but introduces monopoly, leading to market inefficiencies
protects works
focused on relationship of authors to their work
---
conditions:
- automatically granted, independent on form / quality
- intellectual creation ("conscious will to design")
- individual character ("distinction relative to given freedom")
rights:
- exclusive right to allow/deny usage
- until death, +70 years
# eigengebrauch (CH) / fair use (US)
limitations:
- EU knows eigengebrauch & exceptions (research, libraries, press, ...)
- US knows fair use (no profits)
eigengebrauch (CH)
-> can use copyrighted works for Eigengebraucht
-> excempted is software
---
fair use (US)
-> as long as no profits made allowed
# Eigengebrauch
<blockquote>
<ol>
<li>Veröffentlichte Werke dürfen zum Eigengebrauch verwendet werden. Als Eigengebrauch gilt:
<ol>
<li>jede Werkverwendung im persönlichen Bereich und im Kreis von Personen, die unter sich eng verbunden sind, wie Verwandte oder Freunde;
</li>
<li>[Lehrpersonen]</li>
<li>[Unternehmen, Behörden] für die interne Dokumentation.</li>
</ol>
</li>
<li>[darf durch Dritte gemacht werden]</li>
<li>[sonst nicht, ausser Streaming oÄ]</li>
<li>
Dieser Artikel findet keine Anwendung auf Computerprogramme.
</li>
</ol>
</blockquote>
Art. 19 of URG at https://www.fedlex.admin.ch/eli/cc/1993/1798_1798_1798/de
exceptions for areas that can and should not be controlled
authors receive reimbursement by collection society (SUISA, ProLitteris, ...)
collection societies get funds for example by tax on storage space
---
# breaking the law
in general:
-> have to reimbruse other party for caused damage
-> potential additional punishment imposed by the state
how to be illegal:
law that applies to you:
- relative law (inter partes)
-> you have signed a contract with your employeer to not download something
- absolute law (erga omnes)
-> some things are forbidden
---
<blockquote>
relative law: You have signed a contract with your employeer.<br/>
absolute law: You must respected Urheberrecht of the author.
</blockquote>
# why its complicated
basic principles to walk free:
- no convincing proof that law was broken / abused
- honest and faithful behaviour helps
how to calculate damage cause to other party?
what if never would have downloaded the product if price would have been known?
punishment:
- reimbruse other party for caused damage
- state may impose additional punishment
---
# where to find stuff
# what does this mean?
*use*/*download* is legal when Eigengebrauch
you pay for the used works over taxes
*share*/*upload* to the general public is illegal
you need a contract with the rights holder to do this
if you DO break authors rights, punishment likely low
but additional punishment if on purpose / for profit
examples:
- https://weboas.is/
- https://www.reddit.com/r/CrackWatch
---
# download
class: center, middle
- https://sci-hub.se/ (papers)
- https://z-lib.org/ (books)
- https://www.mutaz.net (software)
# examples
---
books & more as direct download
# papers, books, music sheets, ...
most are available & relatively easy to find.
special case *scientific publishing*
lets researchers create and review content
then sells the content back to the universities
middle man between scientist & his literature and carreer
examples:
- https://z-lib.org (books)
- https://sci-hub.se (papers)
- https://imslp.org (music sheets)
- google like "Analysis II filetype:pdf"
// insert image preis entwicklung
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red"></div>
<div class="yellow"></div>
<div class="green active"></div>
</div>
---
# other sources
# music & videos
still relatively good accessible
sites usually not conceptualized for direct download
remember; downloading is legal
use downloader program like https://jdownloader.com
paste link, then ressources are extracted automatically
"Avicii .mp3"
(search engine tricks)
examples:
- https://youtube.com (music)
- https://kinox.to (videos)
<div class="spacer-2"></div>
sites come and go as server weak link -> torrents
why harder to find (with acceptable quality)?
big files are costly to distribute
centralized servers are easy to identity
music sheets: https://imslp.org/wiki/Main_Page
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red"></div>
<div class="yellow"></div>
<div class="green active"></div>
</div>
---
# torrents
# dezentralized storage: torrents
hosting a server with copyrighted material is dangerous / costly
taking server down takes its materials with it
users download directly from other users machine (*leech*)
in turn, users upload content they have (*seed*)
*peers* store *seeders* & *leachers* so they find each other
-> use distributed file systems, like torrents
central servers only distribute .torrent files (or magnet links)
only contain information about how to download (no actual content)
---
use a torrent client like https://transmission.com
use research torrent client like (does not seed)
# legality
**seeding might be illegal!**
essentially *uploads* parts of copyrighted material
however, no convictions yet in CH (damage caused? partial upload relevant?)
depends on material shared
many legitimate / legal use cases, like linux ISOs
in general, just a way to transfer (large) files without central server
many legitimate use-cases like Linux ISO, window updates, ...
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red"></div>
<div class="yellow active"></div>
<div class="green"></div>
</div>
---
# downloading files
# torrent music & videos
magnet links
torrent files
widely varying quality, fakes
focus on "trusted" publishers like YIFY (movies)
*of course, anyone can pretend to be YIFY*
---
information about torrent in `.nfo` file
can open in text editor / often online displayed
# torrent clients
scene expects you to *seed*
your choice!
transmission
ETH client without seeding
examples:
- https://thepiratebay.org (OG)
- https://1337x.to (all content)
- https://yts.mx (videos YIFY)
frostwire
https://www.frostwire.com/vpn
*legality depends on seeding behaviour / legal interpretation*
---
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red"></div>
<div class="yellow active"></div>
<div class="green"></div>
</div>
# sources
---
thepiratebay.org: OG
# programs & games
fitgirl.repacks
usually need to download (not illegal)
then need to active it (depending how you do it, illegal)
*crack* patches the original binary
*keygen* generates/stores a valid license key
*activator* circumvents the activation
crack
keygen
activator
examples:
- SKIDROW cracks for steam games
- keygen for Adobe Suite CS6
- KMSpico Activator circumvents microsoft enterprise authentication
some even pre-patch software:
- https://fitgirl.repacks (games)
- https://www.mutaz.net (programs)
<div class="trafficlight">
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="protector"></div>
<div class="red active"></div>
<div class="yellow"></div>
<div class="green"></div>
</div>
---
# deep web
# increase anonymity
anonymity to protect self (i.e. from censorship) -> OK
anonymity to commit crimes -> not OK
VPN place themselves between you and the final server
but VPN still knows who you are -> need trust, no logs
for example https://www.frostwire.com/vpn
-> whatever is not found easily
TOR network relays request over other participating users
noone knows at the same time who placed request / to where
for example https://torbrowser.com
---
# archive.org
# meta: where to find sources
need "social proof" it is not a scam
hence go to popular forums (but not too regulated)
example: https://www.reddit.com/r/CrackWatch
source code for post eVoting
ethics
legal
more obscure:
- https://archive.org (old versions of webpages)
- TorWiki (directory of onion pages)
- https://shodan.io (IoT devices)
---
# Tor Network
# summary
*downloading* is legal because you already payed for it.
*upload* is illegal if you do not own the works.
sources:
- https://z-lib.org (books)
- https://sci-hub.se (papers)
- https://imslp.org (music sheets)
- https://1337x.to (torrents)
tools:
- https://jdownloader.com to download music/videos
- https://transmission.com to download torrents
- https://torbrowser.com to access the TOR network
TorBrowser, TorWiki
onion illegal:
https://mascherari.press/onionscan-report-april-2016-the-tor-network-security-and-crime/
<small>*no affiliation of the author to any referenced site</small>
---
class: center, middle
# appendix
freedom hosting down, took 20% with it:
https://mascherari.press/onionscan-report-fhii-a-new-map-and-the-future/
</textarea>
<script src="js/remark.min.js" type="text/javascript"></script>
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